# What Is a Bending Section?

Bending Section is the articulating tip of an insertion tube that can bend or swivel around components being inspected. It allows a greater field of vision for inspection, and it can be used for various Remote Visual Inspection (RVI) applications.

There are several bending processes that can be used to bend tubing. These include cold bending, hot bending, and roll bending.

## Bending Modulus

The flexural modulus is the mechanical property of a material that measures its stiffness or resistance to bending when a force is applied. A higher flexural modulus means the material is more resistant to bending than a lower one. This is important because it can be used to design structural components such as beams and bridges that can withstand a large amount of stress without deforming.

A materialâ€™s flexural modulus is determined by applying a force to a piece of the material and measuring the resulting deflection in the material. This test is called the three-point bend test and is performed in accordance with ASTM D790.

This type of flexural test can be used to determine the bending strength of different types of materials, including composites, thermoplastics, and glass fiber-reinforced composites. It is particularly useful for evaluating the strength of materials that are not commonly tested, such as 3D-printed plastics and resins.

During the test, a specimen of a fixed length (L) is placed on two supports and a perpendicular force (F) is applied to its center. The resulting deflection in the sample is calculated using a formula that takes into account the materialâ€™s width, height, and distance between the supports.

The resulting curve is then plotted and the corresponding stress-strain relationship is measured and determined. The slope of this curve is then divided by the change in strain, which gives the flexural modulus.

This method of determining the flexural modulus is a more accurate method than tensile or compression moduli since it is based on a stress-strain relationship rather than on mechanical strain. However, the flexural modulus can differ from the tensile or compression moduli depending on the conditions in which it is measured.

In addition, the bending modulus of a material can also be affected by its composition, temperature, and strain rate. Generally, materials with higher concentrations of filler materials tend to have a higher flexural modulus.

MWNTs have a flexural modulus that decreases with increasing tube diameter, as seen in Figure 17. This is due to the wrinkling of the MWNT wall during bending and recovery of shape upon unloading.

## Bending Moment

A bending moment is an internal force that is induced by an external force that causes the structural element to bend. It is different from the other three forces (tensile force, compressive force, shear force) in that a bending moment aims to cause the structural element to rotate instead of to elongate or compress.

Generally speaking, a bending moment is created by an external force applied to a structural member in the longitudinal or lateral direction. The bending moments will tend to either elongate, compress or shear the structure as determined by the magnitude of the external force.

To calculate the bending moment at a section, you first need to determine the shear force at that section. This can be done by summing up the shear forces on both sides of the section.

The shear forces are considered positive if they are acting in the downwards direction, and negative if they are pointing upwards. This means that a shear force causing the beam to bend downwards is taken as positive, and a shear force causing the beam bending upwards is taken as negative.

If the shear forces are vertical, then they are summed up in order to calculate the bending moment at that section of the beam. This is often called a shear force and bending moment diagram.

When calculating the bending moment at Bending Section any point along a beam, you need to consider both the shear force and the normal forces on the cross-section. This is because the internal forces are induced by the internal load and a couple of these forces must be balanced in order for the beam to stay in equilibrium.

In a simply supported beam, the maximum bending moment occurs at the point of maximum stress; this is where the tensile/compressive stresses in the material are aligned in the normal axis of the beam. Once the bending moment is sufficient to induce tensile/compressive stresses greater than the yield stress of the material throughout the entire cross-section, then failure will occur in the structural element.

Shear force and bending moment diagrams are helpful during design because they show the maximum bending moments and shearing forces that must be allowed in the beam for it to be sized correctly. This helps to ensure that the maximum bending moment is never exceeded, which can lead to failure in the beam.

## Springback

Bending is a common method of manufacturing metal parts. This is because it enables you to create specific shapes and dimensions that cannot be achieved by any other means. Bending Section However, bending can also cause problems that affect the finished product and must be addressed as part of your manufacturing process.

One of the most challenging issues to deal with when bending metal is springback. This phenomenon occurs when the material’s molecules are compressed inside a bend, but they are stretched on the outside. The compressive forces are less than the tensile forces, which causes the material to try to return to its original shape.

Depending on the type of material, thickness, forming process, and amount of bending, springback can vary greatly. This is why it is important to know your material’s properties and tensile strengths when attempting to minimize springback in a particular bending application.

In many cases, springback can be avoided by using annealing before bending to reduce the hardness and yield stress of the material. This can also help improve flexural strength and bending moments during the forming process.

Another way to decrease springback is to use local compression. This technique involves reducing the thickness of the plate and increasing its length, causing the inner and outer plate to offset each other. It can be an effective method for products with simple two-dimensional shapes, but it does not always work well for complex shapes and materials like stainless steel.

A final springback compensation method involves reshaping the part at the end of the forming process to make it more symmetrical and ensure that it is shaped the way it was intended. This can be especially useful when producing a large volume of the same part.

Performing test bends on each piece of metal you purchase is critical to identifying and avoiding springback. It is best to perform these tests on a piece of a new material and keep track of the results so that you can refer back to them later if necessary.

## Flexural Strength

Flexural strength is the capacity of a material to resist bending under an external load. It is measured using a flexure test and is often used to determine the strength of brittle materials like concrete, composites and ceramics.

Flexual strength is typically lower than tensile strength for the same material. This is because flexural stress exerts both tensile and compressive forces upon the sample. Therefore, any weak areas in the sample tend to give up and undergo deformation instead of breakage or rupture.

However, if the sample is homogeneous and has no local defects then flexural strength may be higher than tensile strength for the same materials. This is because a tensile stress will exert a tensile force on all the fibers of the sample but a flexural stress will exert a flexural force on each individual fiber.

In a typical flexure test, a specimen is placed on a pair of supports and a load is applied at the center. As soon as this load is exceeded the sample will bend and break. The resulting yield load is then calculated to determine the flexural strength of the sample.

This bending test can be performed on many different materials but is most commonly used to measure the flexural strength of plastics, concrete, and ceramics. Because these materials are brittle they can be easily broken before permanent deformation occurs which allows for accurate measurement of the flexural modulus and strength of these types of materials.

Another common application for flexural strength is in determining the flexural strength of Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) liners. This test is typically used to verify that the liner can withstand the pressures that it will be subjected to by soil fill, construction equipment and live traffic.

The flexural strength of CIPP liners is important because it allows engineers and contractors to determine how much force the liner can safely bear without breaking or fracturing. This can help them plan for installation, prevent problems and ensure the liner is installed correctly.

Despite its usefulness, flexural strength is not generally used as a means of quality control for structural concrete. Some agencies use it in lab evaluation of concrete ingredients and proportions, but are switching to more conventional methods like compression strength or maturity for field control.